Pakistan

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In the area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometers. The Geography of Pakistan is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.

Key Cities

Key cities in Pakistan include Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Peshawar, Multan, Hyderabad, Islamabad, and Quetta.

Historical, Cultural facts & Religion

The history of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan began on 14 August 1947 when the country became an independent nation in the form of Dominion of Pakistan within the British Commonwealth as the result of the Pakistan Movement and the partition of India. Comprises numerous ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Saraikis, Pothwaris, Kashmiris, Sindhis, Muhajirs, Makrani in the south; Baloch, Hazaras and Pashtuns in the west; and the Dards, Wakhi, Baltis, Shinaki and Burusho communities in the north. Islam is the state religion of Pakistan, and about 95-98% of Pakistanis are Muslim. Pakistan has the second-largest number of Muslims in the world after Indonesia. The majority are Sunni (estimated at 75-95%), with an estimated 5-20% Shia. A PEW survey in 2012 found that 6% of Pakistani Muslims were Shia.

Brief Country History

Pakistan, formally, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic located in South Asia. India borders it to the east, China to the northeast, Afghanistan to the west, and Iran to the southwest. The region that now makes up Pakistan is believed to be the birthplace of civilization which was initially home to a number of old cultures such as the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and Bronze Age civilization. The territory later became home to kingdoms governed by individuals of diverse cultures and faith, such as Sikhs, Afghans, Turco-Mongols, Muslims, Indo-Greeks, and Hindus. Pakistan was also governed by a number of dynasties and empires, such as the British Empire, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, Alexander of Macedonia, the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Delhi Sultanate, the Durrani Empire, The Mughal Empire, the Mongol Empire, and the Sikh Empire. In Persian and Urdu, the word Pakistan means the land of the pure. A history of the country will be discussed in brief below.

Early and Medieval Age in Pakistan – The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha, Sources number of the oldest human cultures arose from regions that make up modern-day Pakistan. The very first settlers in the territory were the Soanian. They settle in the region during the Lower Paleolithic Age and their stone tools have been discovered in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus area which encompasses most territories of modern-day Pakistan, was the location of a number of consecutive cultures, such as the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.

Between 1500 to 500 BC, the Vedic Civilization arose and it was characterized by the Indo-Aryan culture. It was this civilization that laid the basis of Hinduism which became a well-developed religion in the territory. This civilization thrived in the old Gandhāran city if Taksaśilā. This city is presently known as Taxila and is located in Punjab.

Other kingdoms and empires governed the territory during this period. Some of them included the Persian Achaemenid Empire (519 BC), Alexander the Great’s Empire (326 BC), and the Maurya Empire established by Chandragupta Maurya and expanded by Ashoka the Great till 185 BC. Another kingdom was the Indo-Greek Kingdom established by Demetrius of Bactria between 180-165 BC. The kingdom encompassed Punjab and Gandhara and it attained its zenith under the leadership of Menander (165-150 BC). His tenure also led to the prosperity of the Greco-Buddhist culture in the territory.

The Rai Dynasty of Sindh governed the country and its neighboring regions between 489 and 632 AD. The last Buddhist Empire to govern the region was the Pala Dynasty.

In 711 AD, Muhammad bin Qasim seized the Indus Valley from Sindh to Multan in the southern region of Punjab. This point has been identified by Pakistan’s government as the basis that led to the foundation of Pakistan. The period between 642 and 1219 AD experienced the spread of Islam in Pakistan. At this time, most of the population was Hindu and Buddhist but most of them were converted to Islam by the Sufi missionaries. Other Muslim empires governed the territory. Some of them included the Ghaznavid Empire, the Ghorid Kingdom and the Delhi Sultanate, the Lodi dynasty, and the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire introduced Persian high culture and literature, thus leading to the Indo-Persian culture in Pakistan. Pakistan was ruled by the Mughal Empire until the 18th century when European influence increased gradually disintegrating the empire.

In the 18th century, the East India Company of the British Empire developed coastal stations in the region. The company also had autonomy over technology, resources, the seas, and a military force projection that enabled the empire to exercise its military strength thus enabling to Britain acquire control of the subcontinent by 1765. By the 1820s, the British Empire had seized most of the territory.

Language (s) Written & Spoken

Important Pakistan’s national language is Urdu, which, along with English, is also the official language. The country also has several regional languages, including Punjabi, Saraiki, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Gujari, Kashmiri, Hindko, Brahui, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Dhatki, Haryanvi, Marwari, Wakhi and Burushaski.

Types of Commerce in Pakistan

Cotton yarn, cotton cloth, made-up textiles, ready-made garments, and knitwear collectively accounted for nearly 60 percent of Pakistan’s exports in 1999-2000. Other important industries are cement, vegetable oil, fertilizer, sugar, steel, machinery, tobacco, paper and paperboard, chemicals, and food processing.

Language Services US and others will provide working with Pakistan

The language barrier in global marketing is still very real. English may be the Esperanto of the business world, but that doesn’t mean that all consumers speak it. You’ll need a team of language experts advising you to translate and localize a campaign that resonates with your customers, with a message that captures the hearts and minds of your target. The important step is adapting the product/services to make it discoverable and understandable. This involves making content, the product and the website (as well as any marketing materials) in the preferred language of that market e.g., Urdu, Punjabi, Saraiki, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Gujari, Kashmiri, Hindko, Brahui, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Dhatki, Haryanvi, Marwari, Wakhi and Burushaski and so on in Pakistan depending upon the state.

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