Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico has a highly varied topography that consists of rugged mountains with high elevations, deserts, high plateaus and low coastal plains. For example, its highest point is at 18,700 feet (5,700 m) while its lowest is -32 feet (-10 m). Mexico’s climate is also variable, but it is mainly tropical or desert.
Key cities in Mexico include: Mexico City, Ecatepec, Puebla, Ciudad Juarez, Tijuana, Leon, Zapopan, Monterrey, Nezahualcoyotl.
Historical, Cultural facts & Religion
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. The culture of Mexico reflects the country’s complex history and is the result of the gradual blending of native culture (particularly Mesoamerican) with Spanish culture and other Mexican cultures. During the 300-year rule by the Spanish, Mexico crossroad for the people and cultures of Europe, Africa, and Asia. Catholic Christianity is the dominant religion in Mexico, representing about 83% of the total population as of 2010.
Brief Country History
The ancestors of the Aztecs settled on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco in either 1325 or 1345. According to legend, the Aztecs settled at a place where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its mouth. They took this as a sign from their god that they should settle there. The Aztecs called the place Tenochtitlan, which means the place of the cactus. At first, they were unimportant people but in the 15th century the Aztecs gradually built up a large empire.
However, the Aztec empire was not an ’empire’ like the Roman Empire, which was ruled from one city. The Aztecs conquered the surrounding peoples. However, the Aztecs did not usually rule other nations. Instead, they forced them to pay tribute (goods like gold, feathers, weapons, and precious stones). The Aztec ’empire’, was more like a collection of states dominated by the Aztecs. Furthermore, the conquered people had to send soldiers to serve the Aztec emperor when they were needed.
Meanwhile, the Aztecs built up the island in the lake by driving wooden stakes into the bed of the lake then laying earth and rocks. They turned Tenochtitlan into a great city, with a population of over 100,000. The city was laid out in a grid pattern with marketplaces. In the center were the emperor’s palace and the great temple, which was a step pyramid. Tenochtitlan was intersected with canals for moving goods. The streets of Tenochtitlan were regularly cleaned and there were public lavatories. The sewage was used for fertilizer. Furthermore, the great city on an island was joined to the mainland by four causeways. Two aqueducts brought water into the city.
In 1492 the Spaniards discovered the new world. The end of the Aztec Empire came when the governor of Cuba sent an army under Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) to conquer Mexico. Cortes only had about 600 men yet he managed to conquer the Aztecs. The Spaniards had several advantages. They had guns. They also had horses (animals unknown to the Aztecs). The sight of a Spanish cavalry charge was terrifying. Also, the Spanish had steel armor and weapons (steel was unknown to the Aztecs). Most important the people the Aztecs ruled hated their masters and many were willing to join the Spaniards in order to destroy the Aztecs.
When the Spaniards arrived at the capital, Tenochtitlan Montezuma allowed them. However, after a week Cortes took the emperor hostage. Then the governor of Cuba sent a force to Mexico to arrest Cortes. So Cortes went to the coast to meet them. Cortes managed to deal with this threat but meanwhile in Tenochtitlan Spanish soldiers provoked a rebellion. Cortes rushed back to Tenochtitlan but the Conquistadors were forced to retreat from the city at night. So many Spaniards died in the retreat that they called it la Noche Triste (the night of sadness). However, the Spaniards eventually reached the coast.
Cortes gathered reinforcements then marched on Tenochtitlan again. When he reached lake Texcoco Cortes built boats and armed them with cannons. The boats then sailed across the lake to attack the city (which was built on an island). The Spaniards were also helped by smallpox, which broke out among the Aztecs. (The Spaniards brought European diseases to which the Aztecs and had no resistance). Eventually, the Spaniards captured Tenochtitlan and burned it. The Spaniards were now in control of Mexico, which they called New Spain. Cortes was appointed its first governor.
Today one of the main industries in Mexico is tourism. Meanwhile, the manufacturing industry in Mexico is growing rapidly. Mexico is gradually developing economically. Meanwhile, In the late 20th century and early 21st century, the population of Mexico grew rapidly. Today the population of Mexico is 127 million.
Language (s) Written & Spoken
Spanish is the de facto national language spoken by the vast majority of Mexicans, though it is not defined as an official language in legislation. Today, although almost all written Nahuatl uses some form of Latin-based.
Important Types of Commerce in Mexico
Mexico has the ninth-largest economy in the world. Its main industries are food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, and tourism. It is a major exporter of silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton, oil, and oil products.
Language Services US and others will provide working with Mexico
Doing business with Mexico requires an understanding of their local language which is Spanish. An individual or business is required to have a Spanish interpreter accompanying them in Mexico for an exhibition, business negotiations, training, conference, medical support, or for an excursion to bridge the language gap. Moreover, they also require Spanish Translation services for translation of important business documents such as sales and marketing literature, copyright, trademark and patent applications, partnership and employment agreements, mergers, acquisitions and incorporations, trusts, and wills flawlessly.
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