Shiraz is a city in south-central Iran, known for its literary history and many gardens. The marble Tomb of Hafez, honoring the revered poet, sits within its own garden. To the east, the Mausoleum of Saadi houses the 13th-century writer’s mosaic-tiled tomb and an underground pool. Shiraz is a gateway to Persepolis, the ruined 6th-century-B.C. capital to the northeast, with its immense gateways, columns and friezes. Shīrāz, capital, central Fārs ostān (province), southwestern Iran. It is located in the southern part of the Zagros Mountains on an agricultural lowland at an elevation of 4,875 feet (1,486 meters). Famous for its wine, it is both a historic site and an attractive modern city, with gardens, shrines, and mosques.
Historical, Cultural facts & Religion
Shiraz lies in Pars Province, a central area for Persian civilization. The earliest reference to Shiraz is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC, found in June 1970 during digging for the construction of a brick kiln in the southwest corner of the city. Shiraz in the southern province of Fars — as the heartland of Persian culture for more than 2,000 years — is an opulent oasis of greenery and culture in a barren landscape; it is the town of roses, nightingales and love. But above all, Shiraz is the town of poetry, Sa’di and Hafez. Since Shirazi is considered a ‘forerunner’ of the Baha’i religion, Shiraz is a holy city for Bahá’ís, where the Bab’s House (demolished in 1979 by the Islamic regime) was a putative pilgrimage site. In 1910 a pogrom of the Jewish quarter started after false rumors that the Jews had ritually killed a Muslim girl.
Brief City History
Shiraz is mentioned in Elamite inscriptions from around 2000 BC and was an important regional center under the Sassanians and has enjoyed its fair share of mixed fortunes. It became the provincial capital in about AD 693, following the Arab conquest of Estakhr, the last of the Sassanian capitals (8km northeast of Persepolis, but now completely destroyed). By 1044 Shiraz was said to rival Baghdad in importance and it grew further under the Atabaks of Fars in the 12th century, when it became an important center of the arts. Shiraz was spared destruction by Tamerlane and the rampaging Mongols because the city’s rulers wisely decided that paying tribute was preferable to mass slaughter. Having avoided calamity, Shiraz thrived during the Mongol and Timurid periods and developed rapidly. The encouragement of enlightened rulers and the presence of Hafez, Sa’di and many other brilliant artists and scholars helped make it one of the greatest cities in the Islamic world throughout the 13th and 14th centuries.
Shiraz remained a provincial capital during the Safavid period when European traders settled here to export the region’s famous wine, but by the mid-17th century it entered a long period of decline. Several earthquakes, the Afghan raids of the early 18th century and an uprising led by Shiraz’s governor in 1744, which was put down in typically ruthless fashion after a siege by Nader Shah, all contributed to the city’s misfortunes. At the time of Nader Shah’s murder in 1747, Shiraz was a squalid place with a shrunken population of just 50,000, a quarter of the number 200 years earlier. Shiraz’s fortunes were briefly reversed by the enlightened Karim Khan, the first ruler of the short-lived Zand dynasty, who made Shiraz his national capital in 1750 and was determined to invest it with the kind of splendor enjoyed by Esfahan under Shah Abbas I. Despite being master of most of Persia, the modest Karim Khan refused to assume a higher title than vakil (regent) – hence the name of many of the city’s monuments. He founded a royal district in the area of the Arg-e Karim Khan and commissioned many fine buildings, including the best bazaar at the time in Persia. After Karim Khan’s death, the Qajars, his long-time enemies, attacked and destroyed the city’s fortifications and by 1789 the national capital – and the remains of Karim Khan – moved to Tehran.
Despite being stripped of its capital status, Shiraz remained prosperous for a while due to its position on the trade route to Bushehr, but this role was greatly diminished with the opening of the trans-Iranian railway in the 1930s. Much of the architectural inheritance of Shiraz, and especially the royal district of the Zands, was either neglected or destroyed as a result of irresponsible town planning under the Pahlavi dynasty. Lacking any great industrial, religious or strategic importance, the city is now largely an administrative centre, famous for its universities and for the souls of the poets who rest here.
Language (s) Written & Spoken
Language Spoken. Farsi (Persian) and ethnic languages, primarily Azari Turkish.
Important Types of Commerce in Shiraz
In Shiraz industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate. Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran’s electronic industries: 53% of Iran’s electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz.
Language Services US and others will provide working with Shiraz
Doing business with Shiraz requires an understanding of their local language which is Farsi (Persian). An individual or business is required to have a Farsi (Persian) interpreter accompanying them in Shiraz for an exhibition, business negotiations, training, conference, medical support or for an excursion to bridge the language gap. Moreover, they also require Farsi (Persian) Translation services for translation of important business documents such as sales and marketing literature, copyright, trademark and patent applications, partnership and employment agreements, mergers, acquisitions and incorporations, trusts and wills flawlessly.
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